Tyrrell, R. A., Thayer, J. F., Friedman, B. H., Leibowitz, H. W., & et al. Basic study of the VRT (visual reaction test): The effects of illumination and luminance: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 3(3) Jul-Sep 1991, 311-316. Wismeijer, D. A., van Ee, R., & Erkelens, C. J. Vertical disparity and ocular movements of cyclovergence in the stereoscopic perception of slanted surfaces: Giornale Italiano di Psicologia Vol 22(5) Dec 1995, 733-755. (1993). The general approach is demonstrated in fig 1. II. convergence, vergence, and accommodation (See chart, page 8-11). (2001). Jump convergence - the convergence level being increased by rapid jump to a closer point. (1986). Shebilske, W. L., Karmiohl, C. M., & Proffitt, D. R. (1983). Eye velocity asymmetry, ocular orientation, and convergence induced by angular rotation in the rabbit: Vision Research Vol 46(6-7) Mar 2006, 961-969. (2006). TIP: The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, https://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Eye_convergence?oldid=88471. Okuyama, F., Tokoro, T., & Fujieda, M. (1990). King, W. M., & Zhou, W. (2002). Fixation disparity: Binocular vergence accuracy for a visual display at different positions relative to the eyes: Human Factors Vol 44(3) Fal 2002, 443-450. Human eye - Human eye - The visual process: The first line of protection of the eyes is provided by the lids, which prevent access of foreign bodies and assist in the lubrication of the corneal surface. Although the exact disease mechanism that causes CI is unknown, scientists have been able to discover the neurological centers that control convergence eye movements. Cipolli, C., Bolzani, R., Corazza, R., Gualdi, G., & et al. Fogt, N., & Jones, R. (1998). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Patel, S. S., Ogmen, H., White, J. M., & Jiang, B. C. (1997). Ciuffreda, K. J., & Hokoda, S. C. (1985). (1991). Photo-chemical activity in retina and conversion into neural impulse Pickwell, L. D., & Hampshire, R. (1984). Sudden onset diplopia: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 15(3) 2004, No Pagination Specified. Miller, R. J., Pigion, R. G., & Takahama, M. (1986). How does it occur? Although there has never been an argument against convergence being an active force, this does not hold true for the divergence mechanism. Hiroshi, O., & Tam, W. J. Inhibition of saccade and vergence eye movements in 3D space: Journal of Vision Vol 5(1) Jan 2005, 1-19. Erkelens, C. J. Gogel, W. C. (1982). , Reeves & Swenson, "Disorders of the Nervous System" Dartmouth Medical School, Saladin, "Anatomy and Physiology The Unity of Form and Function, 6th Ed. Fusional vergence hysteresis and sensory-motor connection of the two eyes: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 57(4) Oct 1986, 220-227. ... Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-Mechanism in Adults Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry . Dynamic wallpaper phenomenon and fusional hysteresis: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 53(5) Dec 1982, 288-295. This results because the object being seen gets projected to different parts of the eye's retina, causing the brain to see two images. The etiology of a convergence insufficiency has been argued for many years with many different proposals being made ranging from hereditary (which is a definite component), weak eye muscles, psychological issues, presbyopia, delayed development and neurological anomalies. Takagi, M., Toda, H., Yoshizawa, T., Hara, N., & et al. Binocular vergence influences the assignment of stereo correspondences: Vision Research Vol 30(10) 1990, 1521-1523. Aftereffects of sustained convergence: Some implications of the eye muscle potentiation hypothesis: Perception Vol 12(3) 1983, 337-346. ... One metre angle convergence is exerted by each eye when the eyes are directed to object at a distance of 1 m of the meridian line between the two eyes. Psychophysical and vergence responses of normal and stereoanomalous observers to pulse-disparity stimulus: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 53(3) Aug 1982, 136-143. Jaschinski, W., Jainta, S., Hoormann, J., & Walper, N. (2007). Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth: Vision Research Vol 39(12) Jun 1999, 2087-2097. Luminance contrast and spatial-frequency tuning of the transient-vergence system: Vision Research Vol 38(5) Mar 1998, 705-717. Eye of cephalopod surrounded by B cartilaginous orbit (k, l,m). Medendorp, W. P., Van Gisbergen, J. Compensatory eye movements during active head rotation for near targets: Effects of imagination, rapid head oscillation and vergence: Vision Research Vol 27(9) 1987, 1639-1657. Eyestrain with reading or close work, blurred vision, blurry eyesight, exophoria, double vision, problems with near vision or seeing up close, headaches, exophoric", "Vestibular Eye Movements Are Heavily Impacted by Visual Motion and Are Sensitive to Changes in Visual Intensities", "Visual and Vestibular Integration Express Summative Eye Movement Responses and Reveal Higher Visual Acceleration Sensitivity than Previously Described", "Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Care of the Patient with Accommodative and Vergence Dysfunction", "Why do only some hyperopes become strabismic? Branching pattern and properties of vertical- and horizontal-related excitatory vestibuloocular neurons in the cat: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 48(4) Oct 1982, 891-903. Bucci, M. P., Kapoula, Z., Yang, Q., & Bremond-Gignac, D. (2006). Practical anatomy and physiology of the ocular motor system. Cumming, B. G., & Judge, S. J. Carmody, D. P., Flach, F., Kaplan, M., Bengelsdorf, H., & Orlowski, B. (2007). Human Angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Initiation: Relationship to Listing's Law. Published in Eye Care. (2007). Yang, D. S., Fitzgibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. McGraw-Hill", Duane A. Sylvestre, P. A., Galiana, H. L., & Cullen, K. E. (2002). Hainline, L., & Riddell, P. M. (1996). (2001). Distance perception and vergence: Japanese Psychological Review Vol 43(3) 2000, 335-348. When looking into the distance, the eyes diverge until parallel, effectively fixating the same point at infinity (or very far away). (1998). Characteristics of saccades and vergence in two kinds of sequential looking tasks: Vision Research Vol 40(16) 2000, 2083-2090. (1984). Van Den Berg, A. V., Van Rijn, L. J., & De Faber, J. T. H. N. (1995). Yang, D. S., FitzGibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. The importance of multiple treatment modalities in a case of divergence excess: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 61(6) Jun 1990, 457-462. Alvarez, T. L., Semmlow, J. L., Yuan, W., & Munoz, P. (2000). ... Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-Mechanism in Adults Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry . Eye Movement Analyses in Advertisement Psychology and Its Research Trend: Psychological Science (China) Vol 27(2) Mar 2004, 459-461. The influence of repetitive eye movements on vergence performance: Vision Research Vol 40(22) 2000, 3089-3098. Orthoptic effects on accommodation and related visual functions in an adult alternating esotrope: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 5(4) 1985, 425-433. Rambold, H., Neumann, G., Sander, T., & Helmchen, C. (2005). The resting state of the eyes: American Scientist Vol 72(4) Jul-Aug 1984, 378-387. Frantz, K. A. Spatial discrimination in children with poor vergence control: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 70(3, Pt 1) Jun 1990, 707-718. The therapy procedures in each category have been arranged sequentially from easiest to most difficult. True Three-Dimensional Displays that Allow Viewers to Dynamically Shift Accommodation, Bringing Objects Displayed at Different Viewing Distances Into and Out of Focus: CyberPsychology & Behavior Vol 7(6) Dec 2004, 610-620. Oxford, England: North-Holland. (2001). The unreliability of nonius line estimates of vertical fusional vergence performance: Vision Research Vol 23(3) 1983, 295-297. Vergence-mediated modulation of the human angular vestibulo-ocular reflex is unaffected by canal plugging: Experimental Brain Research Vol 186(4) Apr 2008, 581-587. Latency of saccades, vergence, and combined movements in children with early onset convergent or divergent strabismus: Vision Research Vol 46(8-9) Apr 2006, 1384-1392. : Perception Vol 33(1) 2004, 67-77. Efferent factors in natural event perception can be rationalized and verified: A reply to Turvey and Solomon: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 10(3) Jun 1984, 455-460. Leigh and Zee[ 4 ] offered a mechanism for this abnormal ocular movement in the setting of horizontal gaze, suggesting synchronized coexistance of the vergence and version system in conjugate eye movement. Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the near dissociated phoria and disparity vergence eye movements. (1986). Yi, W., & Ballard, D. H. (2004). Bonneh, Y., Sagi, D., & Karni, A. Ledgeway, T., & Rogers, B. J. (1999). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland/Elsevier Science Publishers. Abstract. Saito, K., & Hosokawa, T. (1991). Using a synoptophore to test Listing's law during vergence in normal subjects and strabismic patients: Vision Research Vol 38(22) Nov 1998, 3621-3631. Dickinson, C. M. (1986). C: a. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Convergence as a cue for distance: Perception Vol 23(2) 1994, 207-217. Perreault, E. D. (1992). In convergence insufficiency, eye misalignment occurs when focusing at near target. Sheliga, B. M., Chen, K. J., Fitzgibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. Jainta, S., Hoormann, J., & Jaschinski, W. (2007). Schor, C. M., Gleason, G., & Lunn, R. (1993). This phenomenon is called convergence. Spatial aspects of vertical phoria adaptation: Vision Research Vol 33(1) Jan 1993, 73-84. Neural basis of disjunctive eye movements. Schor, C. M., & Kotulak, J. C. (1986). Abstract. The effects of ingested alcohol on accommodative, fusional, and dark vergence: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 39(1) Jan 1986, 25-31. Asymmetrical vergence and multiple saccades: Vision Research Vol 21(5) 1981, 739-743. A method for measuring eye movements using Hall-effect devices: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers Vol 31(2) May 1999, 353-358. (1999). Malinov, I. V., Epelboim, J., Herst, A. N., & Steinman, R. M. (2000). The remarkable saccades of asymmetrical vergence: Vision Research Vol 32(12) Dec 1992, 2261-2276. Manning, K. A., & Riggs, L. A. (1996). Vergence eye movements made in response to spatial-frequency-filtered random-dot stereograms: Perception Vol 10(3) 1981, 299-304. Harwerth, R. S., Smith, E. L., & Siderov, J. Aslin, R. N. (1993). Why can't batters keep their eyes on the ball? Mays, L. E., Porter, J. D., Gamlin, P. D., & Tello, C. A. Repeatability and variability of near vergence ranges: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 17(2) 2006, 39-46.  This is the only eye movement that is not conjugate, but instead adducts the eye. Perspective vergence: Oculomotor responses to line drawings: Vision Research Vol 27(9) 1987, 1513-1526. Coubard, O. Development of binocularity and its sexual differentiation. A technique for determining convergence in human subjects undergoing rotational acceleration using a binocular eye-tracking system: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 69(8) Aug 1998, 750-754. Convergence ability can be tested with 2 different methods: Near point of convergence (NPC) - is the point where the visual axes intersect under the maximum effort of the convergence. Relations between individual differences in oculomotor resting states and visual inspection performance: Ergonomics Vol 39(1) Jan 1996, 35-40. The description includes the objectives, required equipment, procedure setup, procedure description, and the endpoint. Most of the investigations carried out to date have been devoted to the conjugate gaze mechanism, pupillary dilatation as related to the autonomic nervous system, and the pupillary light reflex. New York, NY: Elsevier Science. Distance perception within near visual space: Perception Vol 30(1) 2001, 115-124. Evoked potentials to a brief diffuse light flash recorded from various brain structures of the cat during horizontal vergence movements of the eyes: Sensory Systems Vol 6(2) Apr-Jun 1992, 118-121. (1986). Role of vergence movement in stereoscopic depth perception of human visual system: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 14(4) 1982, 415-422. Eye-tracking infra-red optometer: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 10(3) Jul 1990, 291-299. Zhu, M., Collins, M. J., & Iskander, D. R. (2006). Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Prevents Short-latency Saccade and Vergence: A TMS Study: Cerebral Cortex Vol 16(3) Mar 2006, 425-436. Nakamizo, S., Shibuta, K., & Noguchi, M. (1982). Binocular disparity-driven tests provide a way to assess the coordination of movements related to convergence eye movements (1). Paradoxical retinal motions during head movements: Apparent motion without equivalent apparent displacement: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 34(5) Nov 1983, 476-481. Moores, E., Frisby, J. P., Buckley, D., Reynolds, E., & Fawcett, A. ... To find convergence in this wide range of theories, explananda, neural signals and associated mechanisms will not be easy. Enright, J. T. (1987). Dark vergence in human infants: Implications for the development of binocular vision: Acta Psychologica Vol 63(1-3) Dec 1986, 309-322. A. M. (2005). Rotation of Listing's plane during vergence: Vision Research Vol 32(11) Nov 1992, 2055-2064. Two test paradigms involve the presentation of small target spots to each eye to evoke convergent or divergent eye movements by … Jachinski, W., Bonkacker, M., & Alshuth, E. (1996). Oculomotor tonus and visual adaptation: Acta Psychologica Vol 63(1-3) Dec 1986, 213-231. (2008). Vergence effects on the perception of motion-in-depth: Experimental Brain Research Vol 183(3) Nov 2007, 313-322. Boman, D. K., & Kertesz, A. E. (1983). Descartes's blind man revisited: Bimanual triangulation of distance using static hand-held rods: American Journal of Psychology Vol 116(1) Spr 2003, 71-98. Nonprescription tinted eyewear optical accuracy study: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 72(8) Aug 2001, 510-518. Viguier, A., Clement, G., & Trotter, Y. Envelope size tuning for stereo-depth perception of small and large disparities: Vision Research Vol 41(20) Sep 2001, 2555-2567. Vergence eye movements consist of convergence, wherein the coordinated contraction of both medial rectus muscles brings both eyes toward the midline (ie, the nose), and divergence, wherein the coordinated contraction of both lateral rectus muscles brings both eyes toward the periphery. Cabe, P. A., Wright, C. D., & Wright, M. A. Lasker, D. M., Ramat, S., Carey, J. P., & Minor, L. B. The effects of eccentricity and vergence angle upon the relative tilt of corresponding vertical and horizontal meridia revealed using the minimum motion paradigm: Perception Vol 28(2) 1999, 143-153. Why are antisaccades slower than prosaccades? Jaschinski-Kruza, W. (1994). Absence of adaptive plasticity after voluntary vergence and accoMmodation: Vision Research Vol 35(19) Oct 1995, 2773-2783. The near point of convergence (NPC) of the eyes can be investigated by placing a fixation object at 30 to 40 cm in the mid-plane of the patient’s head. Hendriks, A. W. (1996). Judging an object's velocity when its distance changes due to ego-motion: Vision Research Vol 33(4) Mar 1993, 487-504. The effects of optical vergence, contrast, and luminance on the accommodative response to spatially bandpass filtered targets: Vision Research Vol 27(10) 1987, 1797-1806. (2005). Judge, S. J. (1999). Pontine Lesions May Cause Selective Deficits of "Slow" Vergence Eye Movements. (2003). Interaction between horizontal and vertical fusional responses: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 33(6) Jun 1983, 565-570. (2002). Thus, the gaze must shift swiftly and accurately during the process of reading. Statistical normal values of visual parameters that characterize binocular function in children: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 24(6) Nov 2004, 528-542. Definition Accommodation is the mechanism by which the eye changes refractive power by altering the shape of lens in order to focus objects at variable distances ... • Convergence-accommodation – Amount of accommodation stimulated or relaxed associated with convergence. Any NPC value greater than 10 cm is remote, and usually due to high exophoria at near. Instability of ocular torsion during fixation: Cyclovergence is more stable than cycloversion: Vision Research Vol 34(8) Apr 1994, 1077-1087. Harris, J. M. (2006). Pope, D. R., Edwards, M., & Schor, C. M. (1999). Kraskin, R. A. Convergence definition is - the act of converging and especially moving toward union or uniformity; especially : coordinated movement of the two eyes so that the image of a single point is formed on corresponding retinal areas. Busettini, C., & Mays, L. E. (2003). Mon-Williams, M., & Tresilian, J. R. (1999). Exaggerated convergence is called cross eyed viewing (focusing on the nose for example). Busettini, C., & Mays, L. E. (2005). Salas, C., Torres, B., & Rodriguez, F. (1999). Kapoula, Z., Bucci, M. P., Eggert, T., & Garraud, L. (1997). Hammad, S., Kennedy, J. M., Juricevic, I., & Rajani, S. (2008). Nefs, H. T., & Harris, J. M. (2007). al. Response characteristics of midbrain neurons related to vergence eye movements. Perceptual aftereffects of sustained fixation and oculomotor changes: Acta Psychologica Vol 63(1-3) Dec 1986, 247-261. 4. Nitta, T., Akao, T., Kurkin, S., & Fukushima, K. (2008). (1986). Convergence of boundary and body information in the visual processing of aspect ratio: Vision Research Vol 46(20) Sep 2006, 3451-3461. Eye alignment and convergence in young infants. Jaschinski, W., Jainta, S., & Schurer, M. (2006). Saida, S., Ono, H., & Mapp, A. P. (2000). How many faces can be processed during a single eye fixation? : Vision Research Vol 25(12) 1985, 1999-2001. Mallot, H. A., & Bideau, H. (1990). (2003). Effects of prolonged forced vergence upon the adaptation system: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(4) 1986, 391-396. Hainline, L., Riddell, P., Grose-Fifer, J., & Abramov, I. Carpenter, R. H. S. (1988). Depth perception, eye alignment and cortical ocular dominance of dark-reared cats: Developmental Brain Research Vol 2(1) Aug 1981, 37-54. Effects of oculomotor cues on the apparent size of afterimages: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 28(4) 1986, 168-175. Kozawa, R., Ujike, H., & Saida, S. (2006). The effect of target size and eccentricity on reflex disparity vergence: Vision Research Vol 39(4) Feb 1999, 823-832. The contribution of accommodation and the ocular surface to the microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 26(5) Sep 2006, 439-446. Stevenson, S. B., Reed, P. E., & Yang, J. Art and the oculomotor system: Perspective illustrations evoke vergence changes: Perception Vol 16(6) 1987, 731-746. Ivins, J. P., Porrill, J., & Frisby, J. P. (1999). Light has been exploited for information by organisms through the evolution of photoreceptors and, ultimately, eyes in animals. Dark vergence and dark accommodation in human infants: Vision Research Vol 23(12) 1983, 1671-1678. Induced esophoric shifts in eye convergence and illusory distance in reduced and structured viewing conditions: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 9(2) Apr 1983, 270-277. In binocular vision, two eye ball turns slightly inward to focus a close object so that both image falls on corresponding points on retina at same time. Relation between fixation disparity and the asymmetry between convergent and divergent disparity step responses: Vision Research Vol 48(2) Jan 2008, 253-263. Convergence responses to monocularly viewed objects: Implications for distance perception: Perception Vol 23(3) 1994, 303-319. Appropriate convergence is necessary for clear binocular vision at near, and binocular foveation is … Jiang, B.-c., & Woessner, W. M. (1996). Harwerth, R. S., Smith Iii, E. L., Crawford, M. L. J., & von Noorden, G. K. (1997). Orientation and luminance polarity tuning of the transient-vergence system: Vision Research Vol 39(3) Feb 1999, 575-584. North, R. V., Sethi, B., & Henson, D. B. The arrows indicate the … Human vergence eye movements initiated by competing disparities: Evidence for a winner-take-all mechanism: Vision Research Vol 47(4) Feb 2007, 479-500. Preferred gaze inclination and the resting position of the vergence system: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 38(4) 1991, 560-584. (2003). Diplopia thresholds and the initiation of vergence eye-movements: Vision Research Vol 21(12) 1981, 1727-1737. The elucidation and use of the effect of near fixation in congenital nystagmus: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(3) 1986, 303-311. Definition: Accommodation is the mechanism by which the eye changes its refractive power by altering the shape of the lens in order to focus objects at variable distances. Wet macular degeneration is a chronic eye disorder that causes blurred vision or a blind spot in your visual field. Kondo, M., & Nakamizo, S. (1982). Effects of localized lesions in the lateral suprasylvian cortex on convergence eye movement in cats: Neuroscience Research Vol 36(4) Apr 2000, 275-283. Mikhael, S., Nicolle, D., & Vilis, T. (1995). Bour, L. J. Binocular eye orientation during fixations: Listing's law extended to include eye vergence: Vision Research Vol 33(5-6) Mar-Apr 1993, 691-708. McLin, L. N., Schor, C. M., & Kruger, P. B. Schor, C. M., Lott, L. A., Pope, D., & Graham, A. D. (1999). Logvinenko, A. D., & Belopolskii, V. I. Adaptive control of pursuit, vergence and eye torsion in humans: Basic and clinical implications: Vision Research Vol 41(25-26) 2001, 3331-3344. Logvinenko, A. D., & Steinman, R. M. (2002). quantified throughout the therapy included: nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, positive fusional vergence at near, near dissociated phoria, and eye movements that were quantified using peak velocity. The mechanism that drives the evolutionary process consists of a large number of unpredictable, chance events that occur one after another. Kerkhoff, G., & Stogerer, E. (1994). Walton, M. M. G., & Mays, L. E. (2003). : American Scientist Vol 72(3) May-Jun 1984, 249-253. Turner, J. E., Horwood, A. M., Houston, S. M., & Riddell, P. M. (2002). Directional discrimination of motion in depth based on changing target vergence: Vision Research Vol 33(15) Oct 1993, 2153-2156. Oculomotor consequences of beta-adrenoceptor antagonism during sustained near vision: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(2) 1987, 127-130. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate plans of management can be achieved with careful history taking and clinical examination. Role of the Posterior Parietal Cortex in the Initiation of Saccades and Vergence: Right/Left Functional Asymmetry. Vergence eye movements and visual suppression: Vision Research Vol 24(6) 1984, 521-526. Olk, B., & Kingstone, A. (1987). Logvinenko, A. D., Epelboim, J., & Steinman, R. M. (2002). (1983).  This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. An adaptable association between vertical and horizontal vergence: Vision Research Vol 35(23-24) Dec 1995, 3519-3527. Target spatial frequency determines the response to conflicting defocus- and convergence-driven accommodative stimuli: Vision Research Vol 46(4) Feb 2006, 475-484. Fixation on fixation impedes cognition: Reply to Kohly and Ono: Spatial Vision Vol 15(3) 2002, 387-391. Cornelissen, P., Munro, N., Fowler, S., & Stein, J. Shimono, K., Nakamizo, S., & Higashiyama, A. Kodaka, Y., Sheliga, B. M., FitzGibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. Ciuffreda, M. A., Ciuffreda, K. J., & Wang, B. Diplopia, commonly referred to as double vision, can result if one of the eye's extrinsic muscles are weaker than the other. Thus, the gaze must shift swiftly and accurately during the process of reading. The computation of disparity and depth in stereograms: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 38(4) Oct 1985, 375-380. Each therapy procedure is described in this manual. Convergence insufficiency (CI) is an eye disorder where your eyes don’t move at the same time. When a creature with binocular vision looks at an object, the eyes must rotate around a horizontal axis so that the projection of the image is in the centre of the retina in both eyes. Takagi, M., Trillenberg, P., & Zee, D. S. (2001). Brenner, E., Van Den Berg, A. V., & Van Damme, W. J. Minken, A. W. H., & van Gisbergen, J. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Dynamical version-vergence interactions for a binocular implementation of Donders' law: Vision Research Vol 36(6) Mar 1996, 853-867. Popple, A. V., Smallman, H. S., & Findlay, J. M. (1998). Differences in eye movements and reading problems in dyslexic and normal children: Vision Research Vol 34(10) May 1994, 1345-1358. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Dynamic properties of medial rectus motoneurons during vergence eye movements: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 67(1) Jan 1992, 64-74. Kapoula, Z., Evdokimidis, I., Smyrnis, N., Bucci, M.-P., & Constantinidis, T. S. (2002). (2001). Scobee and Green49 postulated, for instance, that divergence is a passive form of eye movement elicited by relaxation of convergence, a divergent Effects of stimulus distance on measurements of dark convergence: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 10(3) Jul 1990, 243-251. Study Reveals Developmental Mechanisms of Eye Movement Purpose: To describe the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-mechanism in Adult Population Study (CINAPS), the first randomized clinical trial (RCT) studying young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) using a combination of traditional clinical tests, objective eye movement recordings, and functional brain activities as outcome measures. A laser-based eye-tracking system: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers Vol 34(4) Nov 2002, 561-572. Vergence eye movements result from the activity of six extraocular muscles. Conversely, the function of the cross-linkage between the pupillo-constriction-related … Rogers, B. J., & Bradshaw, M. F. (1999). Binocular coordination of saccades in children with vertigo: Dependency on the vergence state: Vision Research Vol 46(21) Sep 2006, 3594-3602. Binocular cues in the perception of distance of a point source of light: Perception Vol 13(5) 1984, 555-566. The neuroanatomical pathways involved in eye movements and in the control of the intrinsic eye muscles are of widespread clinical and experimental interest although still poorly understood. The mechanism of substituted convergence is also controversial. Tests of Hering- and Helmholtz-Type Models for Saccade-Vergence Interactions by Comparing Visually Guided and Memory-Guided Movements. Disparity vergence double responses processed by internal error: Vision Research Vol 40(3) 2000, 341-347. Only a handful of eye types exist because the physics of light constrains photodetection. Objective and subjective measures of vergence step responses: Vision Research Vol 47(26) Dec 2007, 3238-3246. Regan, D., Regan, M. P., & Harnanansingh, D. (2006). Hyson, M. T., Julesz, B., & Fender, D. H. (1983). Morahan, P., Meehan, J. W., Patterson, J., & Hughes, P. K. (1998). Accommodative responses to anisoaccommodative targets: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 18(3) May 1998, 254-262. Effects of prism-induced, accommodative convergence stress on reading comprehension test scores: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 59(6) Jun 1988, 440-445. Analysis of the perception of motion concomitant with a lateral motion of the head: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 32(3) Sep 1982, 241-250. (2003). Mitkin, A., & Orestova, E. (1988). A vergence is the simultaneous movement of both eyes in opposite directions to obtain or maintain single binocular vision.. ). Hine, T., & Thorn, F. (1987). Topographic organization, number, and laminar distribution of callosal cells connecting visual cortical areas 17 and 18 of normally pigmented and Siamese cats: Visual Neuroscience Vol 9(1) Jul 1992, 1-19. The cause of Convergence disorder is unknown and researchers are still working on it. Horng, J.-L., Semmlow, J. L., Hung, G. K., & Ciuffreda, K. J. Hamori, E., Broad, R. D., & Reed, C. E. (1982). Schnider, C. M., Ciuffreda, K. J., & Selenow, A. Convergence reduces ocular counterroll (OCR) during static roll-tilt Vision Res. The role of vergence in the perception of distance: A fair test of Bishop Berkeley's claim: Spatial Vision Vol 15(1) 2002, 77-97. Some recent studies on the extraretinal contribution to distance perception: Perception Vol 28(2) 1999, 167-181. Convergence definition is - the act of converging and especially moving toward union or uniformity; especially : coordinated movement of the two eyes so that the image of a single point is formed on corresponding retinal areas. Saccade-Vergence Interactions in Macaques. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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