Screening burden varied from 5.3% to 10.8% (Figure 2c). Presumably, there are many reasons for excluding an abstract. 1954, 25 (3): 579-586. Please follow for updates. 10.1002/sim.1190. Systematic reviews that collate a body of literature present a high quality resource for health care decision-making but involve a significant investment in time and effort, usually by small groups of skilled individuals. Edwards P, Clarke M, DiGuiseppi C, Pratap S, Roberts I, Wentz R: Identification of randomized controlled trials in systematic reviews: accuracy and reliability of screening records. It is increasingly difficult for health care decision-makers to find and appraise research evidence, leading to lost opportunities to translate research investment into health care practice improvement  and reducing their utility for clinicians and policymakers. Discover how to do a systematic review in less time, while maintaining quality and accuracy. J Am Stat Assoc. Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3168, Australia, National Trauma Research Institute, 85-89 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia, Veronica Pitt, Ornella Clavisi & Russell Gruen, Global eHealth Unit, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, World Vision Australia, 1 Vision Drive, Burwood East, Melbourne, VIC, 3151, Australia, Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital and Monash University, 2nd Floor, Burnet Tower, Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia, Australasian Cochrane Centre, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia, You can also search for this author in Go to Full-Text Screening: After excluding articles based on the title and abstract screening, begin full-text screening. For research teams looking to make their systematic review process more efficient without sacrificing validity, systematic review software offers many advantages. Rayyan makes completing a systematic review in teams or individually, more efficient. 2018;15(157):1–12 pmid:29351207 . We therefore conducted pairwise comparison of sensitivity, but not specificity, between the EndNote modality and the other methods. We used a chi-squared test  to compare completion rates in each of the four modalities. Citations are presented to the user on the screen of the mobile device and they click on a button to indicate whether the citation is a potentially relevant study or not. Final sensitivity was calculated in a similar way against those articles ultimately selected for inclusion into the review update. Stat Med. As would be expected, this improved sensitivity was associated with reduced specificity, suggesting this modality may have lowered participants’ threshold for citation inclusion. The use of ReGroup, a web-based systematic review platform, was associated with improved final sensitivity and lower screening sensitivity. A key step in the process of systematic review is citation screening, which involves manual review of study report titles and abstracts to identify potentially eligible articles for inclusion in the review . The use of appropriate tools is therefore important. Users click on buttons placed next to each citation to indicate whether they have assessed the citation as potentially relevant or not. Covidence is an online systematic review program developed by, and for, systematic reviewers.It can import citations from reference managers like EndNote, facilitate the screening of abstracts and full-text, populate risk of bias tables, assist with data extraction, and export to all common formats. How Systematic Review Software Makes Screening Easier. A recent overview of systematic reviews, on diabetes and hypertension screening programmes, found that there is a need for a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and impact of various screening interventions. Medical students were randomly allocated to title and abstract screening using one of the four modalities. The primary outcomes of the study were the sensitivity and specificity of participant screening decisions compared to the screening decisions by two independent experienced systematic reviewers. For each of the primary outcomes, we used a Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test  to compare all four modalities simultaneously. All students had received some general training in evidence-based medicine during their medical course, but this did not include specific training in the conduct of systematic review. Bastian H, Glasziou P, Chalmers I: Seventy-five trials and eleven systematic reviews a day: how will we ever keep up?. Six hundred fifty citations were obtained from the date of last search from 6 April 2009 until 12 May 2012. Screen2Go was undergoing beta testing during the study and required students to download two applications: an application to manage the test user installation process and the Screen2Go application itself. Plots (a) and (b) show the distribution of final sensitivities (a) and screening specificities (b) observed in each screening modality as well as the overall pooled distribution, using those study reports ultimately retained in the review update after full-text review as the reference standard. Anticipating negative skew, particularly for specificity, we used non-parametric methods for statistical comparisons of screening modalities. Because the magnitude of this correction differs for each comparison, we report the effective required significance level in addition to the p value that was obtained. Student screening performance by modality. Having only one reviewer is a risk-of-bias indicator for systematic reviews, and best practice methodology requires a multiple-reviewer approach to decrease risk of bias in the review. Results are then co Develop the protocol for the systematic review 6. This is followed by data extraction and analysis as well as an appraisal of the review’s results. 10.1214/aoms/1177728726. Ann Math Stat. The screening specificity of participant screening decisions was defined as the number of citations excluded by the student that were also excluded from the final set of studies by the expert reviewers (true negative), divided by the number of true negatives plus the number of citations included by the student that were not deemed relevant by the experienced reviewers after both screening and full-text review (false positive). 2011, Clavisi O, Turner T, Thomas J, Cavedon L: Development of a Web Based Software Tool to Improve Efficiency and User Experience of Systematic Reviews. Machine learning tools can expedite systematic review (SR) processes by semi-automating citation screening. (PDF 38 KB). Assess need for a systematic review 2. PubMed Google Scholar. Article Objective: To compare title-abstract and title-only strategies for screening citations for a systematic review. Terms and Conditions, An opportunity to improve the efficiency of systematic review production involves the use of non-expert groups and new technologies for citation screening. Develop a research question 4. Many results can be excluded in the first screening stage, which involves scanning the title and abstract of articles for relevance to the topic. Cite this article. The DTA Review Proposal Form (RPF) is … Part of 10.4103/2229-3485.83221. Spearman’s rho for rank correlation between final sensitivity and total screening times showed a weak positive correlation (rho =0.342) not significantly different from 0 (p =0.452). In order to maximise the efficiency of systematic review production, we recommend further investigation into the use of non-expert groups and new technologies for citation screening. Amer J Psychol. OC, TT, RG and JHE are the creators of the web-based systematic review program, ReGroup. Participants in the EndNote, ReGroup and Paper screening groups were requested to self-report the time taken to screen the 650 citations. J Am Stat Assoc. Medical students were randomly allocated to title and abstract screening using one of the four modalities and required to screen 650 citations from a single systematic review update. 2009, 4: 51-. This research did not receive any grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial and not-for-profit sectors. Citation screening is time-consuming yet a crucial aspect of the systematic review process, since failure to identify relevant studies can jeopardise the validity of a review. 1961, 56 (293): 52-64. Future studies should investigate the effect of incentive systems, training and support and analytical methods on screening performance. Screening Results. The editorial process and requirements for title registration of systematic reviews of DTA are different from those used for the Cochrane systematic reviews of interventions. Firstly, we trialled a minimalist and easily scalable model where students did not receive any training in citation screening as part of the study. Whilst previous studies have assessed the effect of experience on the accuracy of data extraction , there is no empirical evidence regarding the performance of non-expert groups in citation screening or the optimal approaches to support their contributions. Screening instruments in dysphagia are fairly heterogeneous and have been developed for different audiences with the main ... a systematic review Codas. Participants were provided with an explanatory statement detailing the study and its purpose. To accomplish screening of all retrieved Title: Describe your manuscript and state whether it is a systematic review, meta-analysis, or both. Medical students may be an appropriate group to engage in citation screening for systematic reviews in health care. We acknowledge and pay respects to the Elders and Traditional Owners of the land on which our four Australian campuses stand. systematic review. KH designed the mobile screening application, Screen2Go, and participated in the study’s statistical analysis and drafting of the manuscript. Screening specificity and burden were calculated for each participant from the confusion matrix of their screening decisions against the consensus screening decisions of the expert reviewers. The primary endpoints of our study were the final sensitivity and screening specificity of citation screening. Syst Rev 3, 121 (2014). PubMed Central Medical students are a feasible population to engage in citation screening. As with other screening tests, screening sensitivity is of greater importance than specificity to ensure relevant studies are not missed. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. Second screening stage. This may be related to the ease of initiation of screening. Secondly, participants were given very little guidance in the content area of the review, other than a one-page review protocol with inclusion criteria. There are two types of screening 1: Screening the title and abstract of search results The searches are sensitive it means you will get lots of noise and irrelevant results. As a result, complete timing information was available for only seven of the ten participants in this modality. Do you remember why we excluded that one?”). Chernoff H, Lehmann EL: The use of maximum likelihood estimates in χ2 tests for goodness of fit. Participants in the ReGroup modality demonstrated the highest median sensitivity and the lowest specificity. The proportion of participants completing citation screening did not differ between study arms (p =0.113). These results may therefore not be generalisable to other forms of review activity, such as full-text review or data extraction or to other groups of potential screeners, such as affected individuals and families. 10.1080/01621459.1961.10482090. 10.1214/aoms/1177730491. 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.04.007. Step 1: Title/abstract screening. Additionally, the medical students had received no prior training and were recruited from a single university. The review team worked with a librarian specialized in systematic reviews to construct search strategies for MEDLINE and Embase (see Supplementary material for search strategy). Version 5. These are optional. To be feasible, methods will be needed to engage and train these screeners, allocate workload, support a decentralised screening process and subsequently aggregate individual screening decisions. There were no differences in screening performance between the use of EndNote and either Paper or Screen2Go. Differences between Paper and EndNote (p =0.689, significance level =0.05) and Screen2Go and EndNote (sensitivity p =0.064, significance level =0.025) were non-significant.The highest sensitivities and specificities observed in any single participant were 86.7% and 99.8%, respectively. Rayyan is a free online tool that anyone can use for screening and coding of studies in a Systematic Review. Study participants were asked to screen the full citation set and, for each citation, decide whether it should be included or excluded from the review using a one-step process. https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-3-121, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-3-121. The study was designed as a pilot study and the sample size limits the power of the study to detect small, but relevant differences. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Future work should explore the effect of different forms of training and support on participant performance. OC and TT designed the web-based systematic review program, ReGroup, and assisted in drafting the manuscript. Login details were emailed to participants randomised to ReGroup, who then simply needed to click on a web link and could immediately commence screening. Google Scholar, Institute of Medicine: Finding What Works in Health Care: Standards for Systematic Reviews. We hypothesised that the modality or technology used for screening may effect the accuracy or efficiency and therefore compared student screening performance using four alternative screening modalities. 2002, 21 (11): 1635-1640. The production of high quality systematic reviews requires rigorous methods that are time-consuming and resource intensive.
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